Dr. Ann Hardy serves as one of the Extramural Human Research Protections Officer in NIH’s Office of Extramural Research and also as the NIH Coordinator for Certificates of Confidentiality. Prior to joining OER, Dr. Hardy served as a Scientific Review Office at the Center for Scientific Review for 7 years. Dr. Hardy has a master’s degree in microbiology and a doctoral degree in epidemiology, both from the University of Pittsburgh’s Graduate School of Public Health. Upon completion of her doctoral training, Dr. Hardy spent 5 years at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention working on AIDS surveillance and epidemiology. She then spent 12 years at the National Center for Health Statistics in various roles on the National Health Interview Survey. Dr. Hardy’s areas of expertise include human subjects protections, infectious disease epidemiology, and health survey methods.